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【ヒロシマの空白】被爆の線引き<上>こぼれ落ちた被害 黒い雨、乏しい記録が痛手 via中国新聞

▽カルテも散逸進む

 「兄の体に何が起きていたのか」。広島市安佐南区相田の沖村武士さん(75)は、兄の正明さんと和男さんをがんで亡くした。2人とも33歳だった。放射性物質を含む「黒い雨」を体内に取り込んだからではないのか―。1945年8月6日を境に家族を苦しめ、今なお解けない疑念だ。

[…]

■援護求める動き

 広島市は73年、住民の声を受け、沼田町(現安佐南区)などで黒い雨の実態調査に乗り出した。国は76年、広島管区気象台(現広島地方気象台)の45年の調査から、大雨が降ったとされるエリアだけを援護対象区域に指定した。区域外で黒い雨を浴びた体験者たちは援護拡大を求める運動を本格化させ、手記集なども出版されるようになる。

 しかし国は区域外での健康被害を否定した。直接被爆では援護の枠組みが徐々に整い、白血病やがんの増加といった知見が重ねられたが、黒い雨はそもそも公的な記録や研究の「網」からもこぼれ落ちていった。

 記録や研究の「空白」は、さかのぼっての被害の検証を難しくしている。国は昨年11月からの新たな検証作業で、広島赤十字・原爆病院(中区)の被爆者カルテを分析するとしたが、保管対象は被爆者健康手帳の所持者分のみ。沖村家でも、当時の原爆病院を受診していたのは直接被爆した父政雄さんだけだった。

 広島市と広島県が2008年、約3万7千人に黒い雨の体験や病気の有無などを聞き「心身に影響があった」との結果をまとめた大規模調査についても、国は「合理的根拠とはならない」と退けた。

■資料発掘を提言

 「空白」は埋まらないのか。被爆関連資料などの研究を続ける宇吹暁・元広島女学院大教授(74)は、病状などを客観的に記録した資料として「黒い雨の体験者が受診した病院のカルテを、国が予算を付けて発掘するべきだ」と提言する。

 国民学校2年だった原田毅さん(83)=佐伯区八幡=は強いだるさや嘔吐(おうと)、下痢の症状にしばらく苦しんだ。2年ほど通院した地元医院での診断は「十二指腸潰瘍」だったが、今も「雨のせいだったのでは」との思いを抱える。

 その医院は既に閉院していたが、近くに住む家族を捜して訪ねた。「原爆はもう2代前のこと。よく分かりません」。一帯で雨を浴びた多くの人がかかった医院だが、医師法が定めるカルテの保存期間は5年。記録は残されていなかった。

 「原爆死の証(あかし)はありませんが…」。2人の息子をがんで失った沖村アキコさんが亡くなる2年前に残した手記には、母の悔しさが刻まれる。その「証」の一端が、日々の診療の記録として眠る可能性がまだ残る。しかし後継がおらず閉院する医院も多いのが現状だ。(明知隼二)

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