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福島原発事故から10年、放射性セシウムが集積しやすい場所を明らかに 農工大ら via News SALT

国立環境研究所、東京農工大学らの研究チームは24日、福島原発事故から10年の間に発表された約90報の学術論文をレビューし、森林と河川での放射性セシウムの動きを網羅的に調べた結果を発表した。水の流れが遅い場所に放射性セシウムが長期的にたまる一方、その場所から生物・水・土砂などの移動を通してじわじわと移動していることもわかった。この成果は、2021年7月7日付で環境科学分野の国際誌「Environmental Pollution」に掲載された。

2011年3月の福島第一原子力発電所の事故により放出された放射性セシウムは、地域を支える森林-河川生態系の汚染を招いた。原発事故後、人々の生活圏の居住地や農地で除染が進む一方で、人里離れた山地の森林域は汚染地域の最も主要な景観でありながら未除染のまま放置せざるを得ない状況が続いている。そのため、森林―河川生態系の放射性セシウム汚染が長期化し、現在でも森林-河川生態系を構成する野生動物・魚・山菜・キノコなどの放射性セシウム濃度が出荷制限(100 Bq/kg)を超過することが一部地域で生じている。

(略)

福島原発から放出された放射性セシウムは事故当時、森林の表土へ直接降下したものと、常緑広葉樹の枝葉に沈着して落葉などにより表土に集まったものがあった。表土に蓄積した放射性セシウムは植物の根や菌類の菌糸から吸収され森林内を循環したり、動物による食物連鎖を循環したりして長期間表土にとどまる一方、雨水浸透に伴って腐葉土よりも深い土層にゆっくり移動していくものもあった。このように腐葉土から始まる食物連鎖は生きた植物から始まる食物連鎖より多くの放射性セシウムを移動させているとも考えられている。

そして森林から河川へ流入した放射性セシウムは水の流れに乗って移動するので、水の流れが遅い場所では放射性セシウムが蓄積しやすいことが示されてきた。特に貯水ダムなど極端に流速が遅くなる河川区間では、より多く蓄積している。またこのような場所では放射性セシウムを貯める効果がある一方で、たまった放射性セシウムの一部が湖底堆積物から溶け出して下流へ流出していることもわかった。

以上のように、森林―河川生態系では特に森林の表土や流れの遅い河川区間に放射性セシウムが集まり、貯留場所となると同時に供給源となることがわかった。これらの場所から、そこに生息・生育する動植物へ放射性セシウムが長期的に移行すると予想される。今後は、これらの放射性セシウムをどのように管理するのかが重要であると考えられる。

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