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発表までの曲折浮き彫り、ルポ「ヒロシマ」に検閲の跡 米軍、世論の反発警戒 via 中国新聞デジタル

ちょうど75年前に「ニューヨーカー」誌に掲載されたジョン・ハーシー「ヒロシマ」の検閲ゲラが確認された。原爆投下に肯定的だった米国市民に衝撃を与えるルポが発表されるまで、どのような曲折があったのか、その一端が浮き彫りになった。米国内に残っていた事実上の検閲の様子や、米ソ冷戦に突入していく時代背景も行間から読み取れる。

(略)

▽大幅な修正なく

 ゲラは、日本での組織的な検閲を文中で批判し、実際には原爆の秘密情報が日本の科学者に漏れていると指摘する。このゲラを読んだグローブスの書き込みは「一線を越えている。削除されるべきだ」。しかし雑誌掲載分に、大幅な削除や書き換えの形跡はない。編集部が指摘をそのまま聞き入れたのではなかったこともうかがえる。

 編集部が検閲に回したことをハーシーに知らせた記録は確認されていないが、神戸市外国語大の繁沢敦子准教授は「ハーシーの発言を記した当時の他の資料から、知っていた可能性は高い」と話す。

 奈良大の高橋博子教授によると、米国では戦後に検閲が廃止されたが、45年9月にトルーマン大統領が「最高度の国家安全保障上の利益」について報じる際は陸軍省に最初に相談するよう促しており、46年も検閲は続いていたという。

 ▽正当化図る狙い

 グローブスの側にも意図があったろう。「ヒロシマ」発表は、ソ連をけん制して米が核兵器を独占的に持とうとしていた時期。長崎に原爆を投下して以来、初めて核実験を再開した直後でもあった。「原爆で日本との戦争に勝った」と正当化し、国民世論に原爆の威力を示す必要があると考えたといわれる。

 「米国を道徳的に非難する表現が『ヒロシマ』にはなく、広島で被害調査をした米戦略爆撃調査団の報告書に沿った内容だ。編集部は、検閲をクリアできると踏んだのではないか」と繁沢准教授は指摘する。「社運とジャーナリスト生命を懸け、広島の惨状を米国民に知らせようとぎりぎりの線を探っていたことに変わりはない。資料を基に、占領期の米国の原爆報道を多面的に検証する余地はまだまだある」と話している。(金崎由美)

全文は発表までの曲折浮き彫り、ルポ「ヒロシマ」に検閲の跡 米軍、世論の反発警戒

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