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原発は温暖化対策になり得ない via 論座

先進型原子炉もコストが合わず、米国でもまだ導入がない

明日香壽川 東北大学東北アジア研究センター/環境科学研究科教授

相変わらず温暖化対策として原子力発電を推す声がある。

 そのような声はバイデン政権の米国でもある。確かに、バイデン政権は、温暖化対策の一つとして「先進型原子炉(Advanced nuclear)」を選択肢とすることを表明している。

[…]

 しかし、米国の多くの専門家は、「先進型原子炉は、コスト、スピード、公共の安全、廃棄物処理、運用の柔軟性、グローバルな安全保障の面で、温暖化対策の他の選択肢である、再生可能エネルギー(以下、再エネ)、省エネ、蓄電池などに対抗できない」と考えている。

 すなわち、実際には、米国で先進型の原発が導入される可能性は極めて小さい。本稿では、米国で先進型の原発が導入されない理由を具体的に示すことによって、日本における温暖化対策としての原発維持・新設の問題点について述べる。

建設費も運転コストも圧倒的に高い

 政府機関である米エネルギー情報局(USEIA)は、毎年、発電エネルギー技術の発電コスト比較を発表している。その2021年版では、原子力発電(第三世代の先進型)および石炭火力は、再エネよりもはるかに高い(表参照)。

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