Understanding Perceptual Compensation in Sound Change
(National Science Foundation Grant #0949754 + REU supplement)
Linguists have long hypothesized that sound change–changes in a language over time that alter pronunciation–occurs when a listener misinterprets a speaker and incorporates the misperception into his/her own grammar. However, little is known about the mechanism through which such adjustments occur and mounting evidence is in fact suggesting that listeners are adept at compensating for variation in speech perception and production. From this, it should follow that sound change would occur minimally, contrary to fact. This research investigates the circumstances under which perceptual compensation (PC) fails to correct for variation in speech and how such failures lead to sound change. We approach this question from three perspectives:
Formal approach: We develop a formal representation of PC (and by extension sound change) to corroborate the experimental findings using Bayesian inference, a statistical tool commonly employed in cognitive science research. This model predicts that the effects of PC may be minimized or even overcome when certain parameters in the model are adjusted; that is, the relative magnitude of compensation is mediated by the properties of a language and the speaker’s prior experience with it.
- Yu, Alan C. L. 2011. On measuring phonetic precursor robustness: A response to Moreton 2008. Phonology 28: 491-518. (PDF)
- Sonderegger, Morgan and Alan C. L. Yu. 2010. A rational account of perceptual compensation for coarticulation. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. 375-380. (PDF)
Experimental approach: To test the formal theory of PC and its connection to sound change, we carry out laboratory experiments testing the limit and variability of PC effects. The experimental paradigm involves testing listeners’ compensatory responses by varying (1) the frequency of the sounds involved, (2) the context in which the speech signal occurs, and (3) the nature of the speech signal itself.
- Yu, Alan C. L., Julian Grove, Martina Martinovic, and Morgan Sonderegger. 2011. Effects of working memory capacity and “autistic” traits on phonotactic effects in speech perception. In the Proceedings of the International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences XVII. (PDF)
- Yu, Alan C. L. 2010. Tonal effects on perceived vowel duration. In Laboratory Phonology 10. Mouton de Gruyter. 151-168. (PDF)
Socio-cognitive approach: Language variation and change does not occur in a vacuum. Understanding the social-embedding of language is crucial to revealing the mechanism and trajectory of change. We approach this problem from the perspective of individual variation. We are currently exploring the hypothesis of individual variability in language and speech processing as a conduit for linking the introduction of new variants in language and their eventual spread throughout a community. In particular, we argue that variability in cognitive processing style, which is an important contributing factor to variation in perceptual, and by extension, in production norms across individuals, can be shown to correlate with individual differences in social traits. These social traits may in turn influence how an individual interacts with other members of his/her social network. Taken together, we hypothesize that individuals who are most likely to introduce new variants in a speech community might also be the same individuals who are most likely to be imitated by the rest of speech community due to their personality traits and other social characteristics.
- Yu, Alan C. L. In press. Individual differences in socio-cognitive processing and the actuation of sound change. In Alan C. L. Yu (ed.) Origins of sound change: Approaches to phonologization. Oxford University Press.
- Yu, Alan C. L. 2010. Perceptual compensation is correlated with individuals’ “autistic” traits: Implications for models of sound change. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11950. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011950. (PDF)
- Carissa Abrego-Collier, Julian Grove, Morgan Sonderegger, and Alan C. L. Yu. 2011. Effects of speaker evaluation on phonetic convergence. In the Proceedings of the International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences XVII. (PDF)