Barry Ickes is a Professor of Economics at the Pennsylvania State University and Financial Director at The New Economic School in Moscow. He is the past Chair of the Board of Directors of the National Council for Eurasian and East European Research. Professor Ickes’s interests include Barter In Transition, Russia’s Virtual Economy, Stabilization in Transition Economies and Enterprise Behavior and Restructuring in Transition.His publications include Resource Rents and the Russian Economy and Energy Interdependence and Security: Russia and Europe. He is currently working on Russia’s Addiction: The Political Economy of Resource Dependence. Current projects are “Market-Impeding Federalism,” (with Clifford Gaddy) and “Reputation and the Soft-Budget Constraint,” (with Alexei Deviatov).